ECMOFOBIA, porque 14 picadelas por dia deixam qualquer um ecmofóbico...

sexta-feira, 22 de novembro de 2013

Há diabetes e diabetes... Vamos lá tentar esclarecer:

Há uma questão que me preocupa grandemente e que tem sido profusamente alimentada pelas instituições que teriam a responsabilidade de esclarecer a população - o que é a diabetes? de que doença se fala quando se fala de 'diabetes'?? Diabetes tipo 1? Diabetes tipo 2? Diabetes LADA? Diabetes MODY?
Dir-me-ão talvez, os mais esclarecidos, que será óbvio que se fala de diabetes de tipo 2, já que é a que afecta a grande maioria da população e que é a que se pode prevenir através da adopção de um estilo de vida saudável. Então, porque não acrescentar 'tipo 2' quando se fala dela??? Será para poupar tinta, ou espaço?? O que é óbvio para alguns, não é óbvio para todos e esta generalização pode comprometer seriamente a vida de crianças pequenas diagnosticadas com diabetes de tipo 1, na medida em que são crianças que estão completamente dependentes dos seus cuidadores e respectivo grau de cultura, para se manterem vivas.

Uma das razões que me levou a escrever este post, foi uma questão que vi levantada numa das páginas do facebook relacionada com diabetes de tipo 1, que sigo regularmente, em que uma mãe com um filho recentemente diagnosticado, apresentava as suas reservas em relação às injecções de insulina, uma vez que há muita informação disponível na internet, onde se apresentam imensas possibilidades de cura através de uns alimentos bestialmente saudáveis (atenção que a questão desta mãe, nem sequer era a questão de estar revoltada com o número de picadelas... era mesmo a questão da insulina ser um produto sintético e, logo, potencialmente perigoso). Claro que eu ía tendo um ataque! Como eu, algumas dezenas de outros pais que leram aquilo primeiro que eu e que trataram, uns de esclarecer e outros mesmo de desancar a infeliz. Para resumir, deixo a seguinte informação a reter: INFORMAÇÃO A RETER - A diabetes de tipo 1 é uma doença auto-imune; NÃO TEM CURA; A ÚNICA FORMA DE TRATAMENTO É A INJECÇÃO SUBCUTÂNEA DE INSULINA (através de canetas ou bomba); Da ausência deste tratamento ADVÉM A MORTE; Os cuidadores que recusaram este tratamento e que assim provocaram a morte dos seus filhos foram criminalmente responsabilizados (sim... infelizmente já houve pais que substituíram as injecções de insulina por terapias alternativas). Outra questão que me preocupa grandemente e que resulta da confusão instalada por esta generalização da 'diabetes' é a ideia, imediatamente interiorizada quando se informa alguém, que a criança tem diabetes de tipo 1 - ok, esta criança não pode comer doces. ERRADO! Esta criança pode e TEM MESMO QUE COMER DOCES sempre que estiver com hipoglicémia. Os doces que tem comer nesta situação têm que ser pobres em gorduras e fibras e ricos em glicose - pastilhas de glicose, pacotes de açúcar, sumos e refrigerantes com açúcar, etc... Resumindo, fica mais uma informação a reter: INFORMAÇÃO A RETER - Os diabéticos de tipo 1 são tratados com injecções de insulina; Da administração de insulina, resultam frequentemente, descidas bruscas de glicémia no organismo - as HIPOGLICÉMIAS; As HIPOGLICÉMIAS SÃO EMERGÊNCIAS MÉDICAS que, se não forem imediatamente tratadas com a ingestão de alimentos açucarados, resultam em COMA ou mesmo MORTE.


E agora perguntam os que, felizmente, não têm que lidar com esta realidade - mas afinal a insulina trata-os ou mata-os??? Pois... tudo depende das quantidades... Que têm que ser calculadas a todas as refeições... É como fazer equilibrismo em cima de uma corda esticada a uma altura considerável... sem rede, claro! Como se não bastasse a angústia do dia-a-dia, de vez em quando ainda temos que levar com a estupidez e a insensibilidade de quem nos pergunta com o horror estampado no rosto se dávamos assim tantos doces à pobre criança. Mas isto ainda é o de menos...

É por estas razões, que eu gostava mesmo que diabetes de tipo 1 tivesse outro nome. Há petições neste sentido para assinar. Coloquei os links para algumas delas no facebook.

quarta-feira, 20 de novembro de 2013

Rotaviruses and type 1 diabetes | Type 1 Diabetes Blog - JDRF Australia

Rotaviruses and type 1 diabetes | Type 1 Diabetes Blog - JDRF Australia


The aim of my research is to understand the immune responses which happen after  rotavirus infection of diabetes-prone mice and to determine how these contribute to the development of T1D. Using this mouse model, I have linked specific immune responses of rotavirus infection with the development of T1D.
Importantly, these specific immune responses could be used to determine why children at high-risk of developing T1D show increased autoimmunity following rotavirus infection. This research has wider implications not only for understanding the role of viral infections in T1D development but also the role that rotavirus infection may play in other autoimmune diseases.

terça-feira, 17 de setembro de 2013

Parasitas poderão ajudar no combate das doenças autoimunes | ALERT® ONLINE - PT

Parasitas poderão ajudar no combate das doenças autoimunes | ALERT® ONLINE - PT

Uma equipa internacional de investigadores descobriu uma nova arma que pode ser utilizada no tratamento de doenças autoimunes como a diabetes tipo 1, artrite reumatoide, doença de Crohn e lúpus, sugere um estudo publicado na revista “Nature Reviews Immunology”.

Através do estudo da forma como o organismo reage aos pequenos parasitas que vivem nos intestinos, os investigadores do Institutes of Health, nos EUA e da -Universidade de Edinburgh, no Reino Unido , esperam conseguir combater de forma mais eficaz este tipo de doenças.

(...)
De acordo com os investigadores, atualmente os parasitas ou os produtos deles resultantes poderão ser introduzidos no organismo para treinar os sistemas imunes comprometidos. Um estudo anterior levado a cabo pela mesma equipa de investigadores demonstrou que a introdução destes parasitas em ratinhos conduziu à produção de moléculas sinalizadoras, as quais aumentaram a proteção dos animais contra a diabetes tipo 1.
 
Este achado espelha o que de facto ocorre nos países em desenvolvimento onde esta infeção é endémica, mas em que a incidência da diabetes tipo 1 é extremamente baixa. “Há um conjunto crescente de evidências que apoiam a hipótese higienista que sugere que a diminuição da exposição aos microrganismos nos países industrializados poderá impedir o desenvolvimento de vias imunitárias reguladoras que de outro modo controlariam as respostas infamatórias nocivas”, explicou o investigador.
 
O resultado de todo este processo é assim o aumento da incidência de várias doenças associadas à inflamação. “No caso de conseguirmos identificar uma forma de aplicar os benefícios que os parasitas parecem proporcionar ao sistema imune, a questão levanta em torno da limpeza e do desenvolvimento das doenças inflamatórias deixaria de ser relevante”, conclui o investigador.

ALERT Life Sciences Computing, S.A.

quarta-feira, 24 de julho de 2013

Type 1 Diabetes Epidemiology Revisited - Who Gets Diabetes? - Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Epidemiology Revisited

Parents of children with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes invariably want to know whytheir children developed diabetes. On many occasions, several newly diagnosed patients actually live in the same neighborhoods, prompting families to wonder if there is something in the environment responsible for causing diabetes. At present the working theory is that Type 1 diabetes is caused by a combination of two factors. (1) A genetic predisposition or risk (low, moderate, high) for the possibility of the development of Type 1 diabetes that is located in HLA region of chromosome six and (2) a trigger that causes the killer T cells to attack the beta islet cells of the pancreas. We currently believe that infections (i.e. mumps, rubella, coxsackie b virus, and influenza) are one type of trigger based on extensive, evidence-based research.

(...)

According to the authors, this pattern of occurrence is consistent with the involvement of exogenous agents, such as infection, that may demonstrate epidemicity. The control, influenza infection, was also noted to demonstrate temporal clustering at levels of months, quarters of a year, and flu seasons. Several referenced studies have reported “seasonality” in dates of diagnosis of pediatric Type 1 diabetes, noting peaks in October to January and valleys in June to August for Diabetes Centers in the Northern Hemisphere. 

More than twenty years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis and year of birth

More than twenty years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis and year of birth

In conclusion, incidence increased over time, the increase tended to level off in more recent years by calendar period but not by birth cohort, with some evidence of a stronger increase among girls than boys. Should the increase be attributable to the effects of some perinatal environmental factor, this would mean that such a factor has started affecting females before males.

terça-feira, 9 de julho de 2013

MedlinePlus: Trusted Health Information for You

MedlinePlus: Trusted Health Information for You


WEDNESDAY, June 26 (HealthDay News) -- A new type of vaccine may stop the autoimmune attack that occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, researchers report.
(...)
Instead of increasing the immune system's activity like the polio or influenza vaccine does, the new vaccine turns off a portion of the immune response, acting as a reverse vaccine. The researchers were able to isolate a part of the immune response that only seems to be involved with type 1 diabetes, according to the study. That means the vaccine likely wouldn't have the risks that medications that suppress the immune system do.
"We were able to destroy the rogue cells that are attacking the insulin-producing cells without destroying any other part of the immune system, and that's truly exciting," said senior study author Dr. Lawrence Steinman, a professor of pediatrics and neurology and neurological sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine.
"Once the immune attack is stopped, I believe there's great potential for recovery in the beta cells," Steinman added.
Beta cells in the pancreas produce the hormone insulin. In people with type 1 diabetes, it's believed that the immune system mistakenly destroys the healthy beta cells, leaving the person with no or too little insulin.
Insulin is a crucial hormone because it's involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrates. It allows the glucose (sugar) from those carbohydrates to fuel the cells in the body and brain. Without enough insulin, a person will die. That's why people with type 1 diabetes must take multiple daily injections of insulin, or deliver insulin through a catheter inserted under the skin that's attached to an insulin pump.
The vaccine was designed by changing a piece of immune-system DNA so that it would shut down the immune system's response to signals in the body that have previously triggered the mistaken destruction of beta cells. These signals come from fragments of a protein (peptides) called proinsulin, which is found on the surface of beta cells. Proinsulin is a precursor to insulin.
"We just wanted to throw the off switch for the one cell being attacked," Steinman explained.
The researchers recruited 80 volunteers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the past five years. They were randomly placed in one of five groups. Four groups received various doses of the vaccine, and the fifth group received placebo injections. Shots were given weekly for 12 weeks.
No one in the study was able to stop using insulin. "That's a possible goal, but it's too early to start saying cure," Steinman noted.
(...)
No serious adverse events occurred during the trial.
Dr. Richard Insel, chief scientific officer at JDRF (formerly the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation), said, "The encouraging results from this initial trial ... in established type 1 diabetes not only demonstrated safety, evidence during the vaccine dosing period showed preservation of beta cell function, a decrease in detectable immune cells [that likely attack the beta cells], and a relationship between the two."
He added that further clinical trials will be needed to figure out the optimal dose for vaccine efficacy and safety.
The study was funded by Bayhill Therapeutics, which helped to develop the vaccine. The JDRF provided funding for the trial, as did the Iacocca Family Foundation.
Steinman said it's too soon to know how the vaccine might work in the real world. It's not clear how often someone would need to be given the vaccine, and how well the body might recover its ability to produce insulin once the autoimmune attack has stopped. It's also not clear if the vaccine might be more effective in people who've recently developed the disease, or in people who have a high risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Steinman said he hopes to have the next trial under way in a year or so.
The study appeared online June 26 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
Dr. Joel Zonszein, director of the clinical diabetes center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City, expressed more caution about the vaccine. "The immune response in type 1 diabetes is very complex, and we've been burned many times with the idea of a vaccine for type 1 diabetes," he noted.
"Because this is a new technology -- a DNA-based vaccine -- I think it would have to be approved for use in something like advanced cancer first, because it may do good things and bad things.," Zonszein said. "We don't know, so we don't want to give it to otherwise healthy people with type 1 diabetes until we know what the potential for harm is."
Still, he said that the new vaccine is an exciting discovery. "This is a welcome discovery. It helps us to understand the immune process better," he said.
SOURCES: Lawrence Steinman, M.D., professor, pediatrics, neurology and neurological sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, California; Richard Insel, M.D., chief scientific officer, JDRF, New York City; Joel Zonszein, M.D., director, clinical diabetes center, Montefiore Medical Center, New York City; June 26, 2013, Science Translational Medicine
HealthDay

Diabetes tipo 1 e as infeções respiratórias | ALERT® ONLINE - PT

Diabetes tipo 1 e as infeções respiratórias | ALERT® ONLINE - PT

As infeções respiratórias durante a infância podem ser um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento da diabetes tipo 1, sugere um estudo publicado no “JAMA Pediatrics”.
A incidência da diabetes tipo1 tem aumentado em todo o mundo. Apesar da etiologia desta doença ainda não ser bem conhecida, as infeções têm sido apontadas com fator ambiental importante.
Neste estudo, os investigadores do Institute of Diabetes Research, na Alemanha, propuseram- se a determinar se a exposição precoce de curta duração ou a exposição acumulada a episódios de infeção e febre durante os três primeiros anos de vida estavam associados com o início do desenvolvimento de anticorpos contra as células do pâncreas, em crianças com risco aumentado de diabetes tipo 1.
“Verificámos que as infeções na infância, especialmente no primeiro ano de vida, são um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento da diabetes tipo1. Foram também encontradas algumas evidências dos efeitos de curto prazo dos eventos infeciosos no desenvolvimento da autoimunidade, enquanto a exposição cumulativa por si só não parece ser a causa”, revelaram, em comunicado de imprensa, os autores do estudo.
Para o estudo os investigadores contaram com a participação de 148 crianças que apresentavam um elevado risco de diabetes tipo 1, as quais tinham sido alvo de 1.245 infeções documentadas durante os três primeiros anos de vida.
O estudo apurou que as infeções respiratórias ocorridas no primeiro de vida estavam associadas com um aumento da taxa de risco da seroconversão dos autoanticorpos produzidos contra as células do pâncreas.
Durante o segundo ano de vida, não foram detetadas associações significativas. Um maior número de infeções respiratórias nos seis meses anteriores à seroconversão dos autoanticorpos também foi associado a um aumento da taxa de risco.
“As estratégias de prevenção contra a diabetes tipo 1 deverão focar-se na vacinação contra agentes infeciosos específicos. Infelizmente, não foi possível identificar um único agente infecioso que poderá ser útil no desenvolvimento da diabetes tipo 1. Os nossos resultados sugerem um possível envolvimento das infeções do trato respiratório superior, especificamente da rinofaringite aguda”, concluem os investigadores.

ALERT Life Sciences Computing, S.A.

quinta-feira, 6 de junho de 2013

New molecule that ‘calms’ the immune system is identified

New molecule that ‘calms’ the immune system is identified

Australian researchers have identified a new molecule that has the capacity to ‘calm’ the immune system in mice with type 1 diabetes.
This study showed that the molecule, known as CD52, is released by a specific sub-set of T-cells in the immune system. CD52 attaches itself to a ‘receptor’ and starts a chain of molecule-based events. This led to a calming effect on immune cells that were attacking ‘self’ proteins.
The study also showed that levels of CD52 are lower in people with type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, the study showed that the onset of type 1 diabetes in diabetic mice was associated with a reduced level of CD52.
Moving forward, the ability of CD52 to calm the immune system during type 1 diabetes has the potential as both a preventative therapy and a treatment in controlling the immune system and immune attack. Further studies to validate the safety and effectiveness of CD25 are needed.

sexta-feira, 17 de maio de 2013

Injectable Nanoparticles may Simplify Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes

Injectable Nanoparticles may Simplify Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes


Injectable nanoparticles developed at MIT may someday eliminate the need for patients with Type 1 diabetes to constantly monitor their blood-sugar levels and inject themselves with insulin.

The nanoparticles were designed to sense glucose levels in the body and respond by secreting the appropriate amount of insulin, thereby replacing the function of pancreatic islet cells, which are destroyed in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Ultimately, this type of system could ensure that blood-sugar levels remain balanced and improve patients’ quality of life, according to the researchers.

Insulin really works, but the problem is people don’t always get the right amount of it. With this system of extended release, the amount of drug secreted is proportional to the needs of the body,” says Daniel Anderson, an associate professor of chemical engineering and member of MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science.

Anderson is the senior author of a paper describing the new system in a recent issue of the journal ACS Nano. Lead author of the paper is Zhen Gu, a former postdoc in Anderson’s lab. The research team also includes Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT, and researchers from the Department of Anesthesiology at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Mimicking the pancreas
Currently, people with Type 1 diabetes typically prick their fingers several times a day to draw blood for testing their blood-sugar levels. When levels are high, these patients inject themselves with insulin, which breaks down the excess sugar.
In recent years, many researchers have sought to develop insulin-delivery systems that could act as an “artificial pancreas,” automatically detecting glucose levels and secreting insulin. One approach uses hydrogels to measure and react to glucose levels, but those gels are slow to respond or lack mechanical strength, allowing insulin to leak out.
The MIT team set out to create a sturdy, biocompatible system that would respond more quickly to changes in glucose levels and would be easy to administer.
Their system consists of an injectable gel-like structure with a texture similar to toothpaste, says Gu, who is now an assistant professor of biomedical engineering and molecular pharmaceutics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University. The gel contains a mixture of oppositely charged nanoparticles that attract each other, keeping the gel intact and preventing the particles from drifting away once inside the body.
Using a modified polysaccharide known as dextran, the researchers designed the gel to be sensitive to acidity. Each nanoparticle contains spheres of dextran loaded with an enzyme that converts glucose into gluconic acid. Glucose can diffuse freely through the gel, so when sugar levels are high, the enzyme produces large quantities of gluconic acid, making the local environment slightly more acidic.
That acidic environment causes the dextran spheres to disintegrate, releasing insulin. Insulin then performs its normal function, converting the glucose in the bloodstream into glycogen, which is absorbed into the liver for storage.

Long-term control
In tests with mice that have Type 1 diabetes, the researchers found that a single injection of the gel maintained normal blood-sugar levels for an average of 10 days. Because the particles are mostly composed of polysaccharides, they are biocompatible and eventually degrade in the body.
The researchers are now trying to modify the particles so they can respond to changes in glucose levels faster, at the speed of pancreas islet cells. “Islet cells are very smart. They can release insulin very quickly once they sense high sugar levels,” Gu says.
Before testing the particles in humans, the researchers plan to further develop the system’s delivery properties and to work on optimizing the dosage that would be needed for use in humans.
“Clearly longer-term studies are warranted, but from a closed-loop perspective, this is a very clever approach to normalizing blood-glucose levels in individuals with diabetes, achieved by integrating the glucose sensing with the insulin delivery, much like a natural pancreatic beta cell,” says Frank Doyle, a professor of chemical engineering at the University of California at Santa Barbara who was not part of the research team.

The research was funded by the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust Foundation and the Tayebati Family Foundation.

quinta-feira, 14 de março de 2013

DKA awareness campaign | International Diabetes Federation

DKA awareness campaign | International Diabetes Federation


Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when there is profound insulin deficiency. It frequently occurs at diagnosis and also in children and youth with diabetes if insulin is omitted, or if insufficient insulin is given at times of acute illness.
DKA results in vomiting, abdominal pain, flushed cheeks, acetone (sweet) smell on breath and dehydration with continued polyuria (excessive urination). Breathing at first is rapid and shallow and later deep sighing respirations (Kussmaul breathing). The level of consciousness decreases and coma and death can ensue.



DKA is a medical emergency and treatment should be initiated at the healthcare site of first contact. The child/youth should be transferred as soon as possible to the best available site of care with diabetes experience.
It is quite likely that some children and youth in developing countries, presenting for the first time in ketoacidosis, die undiagnosed. The symptoms and clinical findings they present with may be diagnosed as more common illnesses such as pneumonia, gastroenteritis, malaria or typhoid. Also, even when the correct diagnosis is made, it is sometimes very late and the child/youth can die or suffer permanent cerebral damage.
This problem has been known for some years, and prompted education campaigns. A project using posters and targeting the community was effective in Parma, Italy, and similar programs have been instituted in South Africa and Australia. Various posters have been used depending on the culture and the target group for education. In 2009, IDF developed a 4-icon poster (frequent urination, weight loss, lack of energy, excessive thirst). The South African paediatric endocrinologists added a fifth icon of bed-wetting.
The Life for a Child Programme has introduced a 6-icon poster - the 6th icon depicting the later stages of DKA - and invited countries supported by the Programme to participate. The campaign was developed to alert health professionals to the signs and symptoms of diabetes in order to make a swift diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment to save lives - championing the vision that no child should die of diabetes.

domingo, 10 de março de 2013

Diurnal Pattern of Insulin Action in Type 1 diabetes

Diurnal Pattern of Insulin Action in Type 1 diabetes

'The results suggest that in contrast to healthy subjects, SI diurnal pattern in type 1 diabetes is individual specific, hence cannot be extrapolated to the type 1 diabetes population as a whole thus implying that Artificial Pancreas algorithms may need to be personalized.'

terça-feira, 5 de março de 2013

DRI BioHub -- The Next Quantum Leap Toward A Biological Cure



http://www.diabetesresearch.org/BioHub


A 'Mini-Organ' Delivering Real Insulin in Real Time

With the BioHub, the DRI is taking a quantum leap toward a biological cure.
The BioHub is a bioengineered “mini organ” that mimics the native pancreas. It contains real insulin-producing cells that can sense blood sugar and release the precise amount of insulin needed -- in real time.
To the millions living with diabetes, the BioHub brings the promise of natural insulin production and normal blood sugar levels one step closer to reality.

Building on success

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys insulin-producing “islet” cells in the pancreas. The DRI’s focus is to develop a biological cure by replacing those cells.
In clinical trials, our scientists have transplanted islet cells from donor organs into patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes. As a result, recipients achieve insulin independence. Some patients continue to be insulin free for more than a decade after the transplant.

“The BioHub gives us a tool to combine all we’ve learned through the years of clinical testing and take the next leap forward. I am confident that this approach could move cellular therapies and biological replacement strategies for the cure of diabetes to our final goal.”

-- Camillo Ricordi, M.D. Stacy Joy Goodman Professor of Surgery and Director, Diabetes Research Institute

However, islet transplantation has been limited to only the most severe cases of diabetes. Several challenges must be overcome before this strategy can be offered to all who can benefit.
The existing hurdles include:
  • Supply – the need for more insulin-producing cells for transplant
  • Sustainability – the need for the recipient to accept the cells long-term, without the need for anti-rejection drugs
  • Site – the identification of an optimal site within the body to house the new cells

Addressing the challenges

The BioHub platform addresses these challenges by drawing on recent developments in bioengineering, immunology, and decades of transplantation expertise.
Prior to their destruction by the immune system in type 1 diabetes, healthy islets thrive inside the pancreas, where they have sufficient oxygen, adequate space, and all the nutrients needed to perform the demanding job of normalizing blood sugar levels.
The BioHub attempts to closely replicate the cells’ natural environment and allows scientists to fine tune these cellular needs within the transplant site as never before.

“The development of a mini organ would mimic the native pancreas and restore the natural metabolic function of insulin release in immediate response to blood sugar levels-something currently unavailable to patients with diabetes.”

-- Jay Skyler, M.D. Deputy Director of Clinical Research and Academic Programs, Diabetes Research Institute

Among the platforms being tested for a BioHub is a porous, sponge-like material approximately the size of a quarter that is compatible with the human body. Islet cells are gently seeded on this protective platform, allowing cells to nestle within the individual pores.
Researchers are also testing the use of more natural containers, such as a patient’s own vein, that can be tied off to create a “venous sac" complete with its own pre-existing vascular supply.

Enhancing the environment

In addition to housing transplanted insulin-producing cells, a BioHub will also allow scientists to enhance the immediate transplant environment withadditional oxygen, specific types of “helper” cells or other agents to promote the cells’ long-term survival and function.

“If we can identify an optimal place within the body to place a BioHub, then I believe this disease is totally reversible, which has been the DRI’s ultimate goal since our inception.”

-- Luca Inverardi, M.D., Deputy Director of Translational Research, Diabetes Research Institute

Additionally, a BioHub platform can be used to house not just islets, but any future insulin-producing cell type that scientists create.
The components that comprise the BioHub are in various stages of development and testing, with pre-clinical trials currently underway.

http://www.diabetesresearch.org/BioHub

sábado, 2 de março de 2013

Fazemos, hoje, 4 anos de diagnóstico...

Hoje fazemos 4 anos de diagnóstico...
Para assinalar a data, partilho convosco o desabafo de uma mãe que vive a nossa realidade...
E vocês... sabiam a sorte que tinham? E agora? Sabem a sorte que têm?
Não deixem de ler...


The Princess and The Pump: A Type 1 Diabetes Blog: Lucky

'Do you know how lucky you are?

If you've never had to pierce your child's flesh.

If you've never entered your child's bedroom with baited breath, waiting to know they are alive before you exhale.

If you have - but know that that possibility is remote and highly unlikely. 

If you don't see your child's blood every single day.

If you can feed your child without thinking twice. 

If you don't have to count every morsel that goes into their mouths.

If you can send your child to school without any extra care, notification, preparation.

If you can let your child go off to play at a friends house with any added stress or explanation or directions.

If you can sleep for more than 3 hours at a time.


If the medicine cabinet on your bathroom is still functioning and has just about enough room.


If you don't have a sharps container in your house.


If your pharmacy does not know you well enough to call you by first name.


If you don't have to BEG your insurance company to give you
enough supplies to keep your child healthy.

If you don't visit a hospital every 3 months.

If you don't worry when your child falls down when playing or falls asleep in the car that he or she is actually passed out from a hypoglycemic episode.


If you don't carry around an enormous amount of medical supplies every where you go.


If you don't know what normal blood sugar is.


If your life has never been divided into before and after.


If you never spent a week in the hospital learning to keep your child alive.


If you don't fear a simple cold or a 24 hour stomach bug.  If you'd never even imagine that it could land you in the ER.

If you don't have to FIGHT so that your child can be like everyone else.

If you don't know what insulin smells like.

If you don't know how to fill a syringe.  

If you don't juggle carb counts, carb rations, ISF's, and IOB information at the same time. 


If you have no idea what any of that means.

If you've never had to hold your child down to give her a shot.  Multiple times a day.  Every day. 

If you've never listened to your child cry and scream, "NO!  Mommy, Don't hurt me."


If you've never had to answer your child when she asked, "Why me?  Why am I different?  Will it ever go away?"


If you don't stare death in the face every day.


If you don't really know anything about Type 1 diabetes.

Do you know how lucky you are?  Do you know how much you take for granted every day?  Do you know how much easier life is without diabetes?


Do you?


Before April 27, 2009 - I didn't.  I had no idea.  I had no idea how lucky I was. 
I had no idea how easy meal times were.  I had no idea how simple it was to get my child a glass of juice or milk.  I had no idea what a "bad cold" or "illness" was REALLY like.  I didn't know anything about carbs.  Or insurance.  Or needles.  Playing, dancing, going to school... it was all so easy. 
I had no idea.  I took so much for granted.
But now....
Now I'm on the other side. 



And do you know how lucky I am?

I know how to fill a syringe.


I know how to give a shot and insert a cannula.


I know how to count carbs and calculate insulin doses. 


I have insulin to give my child.


I have a pharmacy staff that is caring and kind.


I have a top rate children's hospital to treat my child.


I have a closer family.

I have deeper relationships. 

I have enough supplies to keep my child alive and healthy.

I have been humbled by something bigger than me.

I have a school and teachers who love my child and care for her like she's their own.


I have learned to ask for help.


I have learned that I can't do it all.

I have learned to cherish the good days.

I have learned to enjoy the moment.

I have learned how fragile life is.

I have learned how strong I really am.



There are days that I hate diabetes.  I hate what it does to my child and me and my family.  I hate what it means.  I hate all that we have to do to just to appear normal and live a normal life.  I hate all that it takes away.  I hate all that it demands of us.
There are days.... days when I wish it had never entered our lives.  Days when I am so incredibly jealous of those whose lives are so much easier.  Of those who don't deal with diabetes.  Of those who don't worry daily about their child's mortality.
And when I have one of those days.....  I try to think of lucky I am.  Of all the good D has brought into our lives. 
Because I can't make it go away. 
All I can do is look for the blessings.  And feel lucky.'

http://www.theprincessandthepump.com/

quinta-feira, 28 de fevereiro de 2013

Grove Glucometer

Grove Instruments - How it Works



The Grove Glucometer is portable, battery operated, fits in a shirt pocket and requires absolutely no ancillary equipment (swabs, stylets, strips) required by blood-based instruments. 

Grove’s patented technology uses light to measure real-time blood sugar (glucose) in less than 20 seconds, without blood, needles or pain.

Grove has solved the technical challenges that have historically limited near-infrared (NIR) glucose detection – namely, water interference and low signal:noise ratio. Grove’s unique patented Optical Bridge takes care of both of these problems and allows detection of glucose with NIR light at a natural harmonic of its resonance frequency.

Grove’s patented technology uses only very well perfused (high blood flow) sites – the fingertip or the earlobe. Grove’s technique also isolates the glucose signal to the blood compartment. Thus Grove’s glucometer uses neither an alternate site, nor an alternate fluid, rather, it gives a reading of real-time blood glucose, actionable for the management of diabetes. And it does it without pain, needles or a blood sample.
The test takes less than 20 seconds – considerably less than it takes to prepare the site, lance the skin, and process a blood sample as all currently available devices require. Real-time blood glucose in less than 20 seconds – obtained with a completely noninvasive (uses only light!) Grove Glucometer.

terça-feira, 26 de fevereiro de 2013

Exposição a químicos afeta sistema endócrino | ALERT® ONLINE - PT

Exposição a químicos afeta sistema endócrino | ALERT® ONLINE - PT


A exposição a desreguladores endócrinos, químicos presentes virtualmente em todo o lado e que interferem com o sistema hormonal, tem riscos para a saúde humana e o ambiente, dá conta um relatório divulgado por duas agências da ONU. 
O relatório sobre químicos desreguladores endócrinos (QDE), realizado pelo Programa das Nações Unidas para o Ambiente (PNUA) e pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), conclui que é necessária mais investigação para se perceber melhor estes químicos, de que se conhece apenas "a ponta do icebergue".
“Precisamos urgentemente de mais investigação para obter uma imagem mais completa dos impactos para a saúde e o ambiente dos desreguladores endócrinos”, disse a diretora da OMS para a Saúde Pública e o Ambiente, Maria Neira.
A notícia avançada pela agência Lusa refere que em causa estão químicos que interferem com o sistema endócrino, cujo funcionamento regula a libertação de hormonas essenciais para funções como o metabolismo, o crescimento e desenvolvimento, o sono e o humor.
Alguns destes químicos ocorrem naturalmente, enquanto outros são sintetizados, podendo ser encontrados em produtos como pesticidas, equipamentos eletrónicos, produtos de higiene e cosméticos, assim como em aditivos e contaminantes encontrados em alimentos.
A exposição humana aos QDE pode ocorrer através da ingestão de alimentos, poeiras e água, assim como pela inalação de gases e partículas ou mesmo através do contacto com a pele.
De acordo com relatório, a exposição aos QDE está associada a problemas de fertilidade em jovens rapazes, cancro da mama nas mulheres, cancro da próstata no homem, assim como hiperatividade e défice de atenção em crianças.
Uma das maiores preocupações dos autores do relatório é a multiplicação de substâncias químicas presentes na vida quotidiana e o facto de o ser humano ter contacto com elas ainda antes de nascer.
"As crianças são as mais vulneráveis, mas a exposição começa no útero, o que pode causar problemas e doenças 20 anos depois da exposição fetal", disse Maria Neira.
"É hoje claro, de estudos em humanos, que estamos expostos a centenas de químicos ambientais ao mesmo tempo. É hoje virtualmente impossível examinar uma população não exposta em todo o mundo. As tendências indicam que há um peso crescente de doenças endócrinas em todo o globo em que os QDE terão um papel importante, e as futuras gerações também poderão ser afetadas", dá conta o documento.

ALERT Life Sciences Computing, S.A.

terça-feira, 19 de fevereiro de 2013

Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes by Engineering a Glucose Sensor in Skeletal Muscle

Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes by Engineering a Glucose Sensor in Skeletal Muscle


'Type 1 diabetic patients develop severe secondary complications because insulin treatment does not guarantee normoglycemia. Thus, efficient regulation of glucose homeostasis is a major challenge in diabetes therapy. Skeletal muscle is the most important tissue for glucose disposal after a meal. However, the lack of insulin during diabetes impairs glucose uptake. To increase glucose removal from blood, skeletal muscle of transgenic mice was engineered both to produce basal levels of insulin and to express the liver enzyme glucokinase. After streptozotozin (STZ) administration of double-transgenic mice, a synergic action in skeletal muscle between the insulin produced and the increased glucose phosphorylation by glucokinase was established, preventing hyperglycemia and metabolic alterations. These findings suggested that insulin and glucokinase might be expressed in skeletal muscle, using adeno-associated viral 1 (AAV1) vectors as a new gene therapy approach for diabetes. AAV1-Ins GK–treated diabetic mice restored and maintained normoglycemia in fed and fasted conditions for >4 months after STZ administration. Furthermore, these mice showed normalization of metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, and food and fluid intake. Therefore, the joint action of basal insulin production and glucokinase activity may generate a “glucose sensor” in skeletal muscle that allows proper regulation of glycemia in diabetic animals and thus prevents
secondary complications. Diabetes 55:1546–1553, 2006'

quarta-feira, 13 de fevereiro de 2013

JDRF and CIRM Increase Funding of ViaCyte

JDRF and CIRM Increase Funding of ViaCyte

'ViaCyte's innovative product is designed to deliver to patients immature pancreatic progenitor cells developed from a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line; over time, these cells develop into mature pancreatic cells that are capable of producing pancreatic hormones, including insulin. These cells are encapsulated in a device that isolates the cells from the host but allows free flow of oxygen, nutrients, and other factors, so that the cells can respond to blood glucose and release hormones like insulin while being protected from the patient's immune system. The combination product is designated VC-01. The benefit of such a breakthrough would be the ability to provide a patient with a new source of insulin-producing cells to replace those destroyed by the autoimmune response that is a hallmark of T1D.'

terça-feira, 12 de fevereiro de 2013

UAB researchers cure type 1 diabetes in dogs - UAB Barcelona

UAB researchers cure type 1 diabetes in dogs - UAB Barcelona

Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), led by Fàtima Bosch, have shown for the first time that it is possible to cure diabetes in large animals with a single session of gene therapy. As published this week in Diabetes, the principal journal for research on the disease, after a single gene therapy session, the dogs recover their health and no longer show symptoms of the disease. In some cases, monitoring continued for over four years, with no recurrence of symptoms.
 The therapy is minimally invasive. It consists of a single session of various injections in the animal's rear legs using simple needles that are commonly used in cosmetic treatments. These injections introduce gene therapy vectors, with a dual objective: to express the insulin gene, on the one hand, and that of glucokinase, on the other. Glucokinase is an enzyme that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood. When both genes act simultaneously they function as a "glucose sensor", which automatically regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood, thus reducing diabetic hyperglycemia (the excess of blood sugar associated with the disease). As Fàtima Bosch, the head researcher, points out, "this study is the first to demonstrate a long-term cure for diabetes in a large animal model using gene therapy.” This same research group had already tested this type of therapy on mice, but the excellent results obtained for the first time with large animals lays the foundations for the clinical translation of this gene therapy approach to veterinary medicine and eventually to diabetic patients. The study was led by the head of the UAB's Centre for Animal Biotechnology and Gene Therapy (CBATEG) Fàtima Bosch, and involved the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the UAB, the Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery of the UAB, the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the UAB, the Department of Animal Health and Anatomy of the UAB, the Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (USA) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute of Philadelphia (USA).

Medical mystery: The rise of Type 1 diabetes in infants and toddlers - ACSH

Medical mystery: The rise of Type 1 diabetes in infants and toddlers - ACSH


Health care professionals and researchers are scrambling to understand why there is a sharp increase in the number of cases reported of children with type 1 diabetes.
The new research, published in the journal Diabetes Care, updated a registry started in 1985 of Philadelphia children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. In 1985, cases of type 1 diabetes were seen at a rate of 13.4 for every 100,000 children in Philadelphia. By 2005, the rate was 17.2 cases per 100,000, amounting to an increase of 29 percent in overall cases.
The biggest increase was seen in children under age 5; for that group, researchers noted a 70 percent rise in type 1 diabetes cases.
“Why are we seeing this large increase in type 1 diabetes in very young children? Unfortunately, the answer is we don’t know,” said lead study author Terri Lipman, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing.

sexta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2013

O ECMOFOBIA no facebook

https://www.facebook.com/Ecmofobia

List of countries by incidence of Type 1 diabetes ages 0 to 14 - Diabetes UK

List of countries by incidence of Type 1 diabetes ages 0 to 14 - Diabetes UK

PositionCountryIncidence
(per 100,000)
1Finland57.6
2Sweden43.1
3Saudi Arabia31.4
4Norway27.9
5United Kingdom24.5
6USA23.7
7Australia22.5
8Kuwait22.3
9Denmark22.2
10Canada21.7
11Netherlands18.6
12Germany18
12New Zealand18
14Poland17.3
15Czech Republic17.2
16Estonia17.1
17Puerto Rico16.8
18Ireland16.3
18Montenegro16.3
20Malta15.6
21Luxembourg15.5
22Belgium15.4
23Cyprus14.9
24Iceland14.7
25Slovakia13.6
26Austria13.3
27Portugal13.2
28Spain13
29Serbia12.9
30United States Virgin Islands12.8
31France12.2
32Italy12.1
32Russian Federation12.1
34Qatar11.4
35Hungary11.3
36Slovenia11.1
37Israel10.4
37Greece10.4
39Bahamas10.1
39Sudan10.1
41Bulgaria9.4
42Switzerland9.2
43Croatia9.1
44Libyan Arab Jamahiriya9
45Algeria8.6
46Uruguay8.3
47Ukraine8.1
48Egypt8
49Lithuania7.8
50Brazil7.7
51Latvia7.5
52Tunisia7.3
53Argentina6.8
54Chile6.6
55Dominica5.7
56Belarus5.6
57Romania5.4
58Georgia4.6
59India4.2
60Macedonia3.9
61Taiwan3.8
62Iran3.7
63Antigua and Barbuda3.5
63Bosnia and Herzegovina3.5
65Jordan3.2
66Nigeria2.9
67Oman2.5
67Singapore2.5
69Japan2.4
70Cuba2.3
71Barbados2
71China, Hong Kong SAR2
73Mexico1.5
74Mauritius1.4
75Colombia1.3
76Uzbekistan1.2
76Tajikistan1.2
78Republic of Korea1.1
79United Republic of Tanzania0.9
79Paraguay0.9
81Zambia0.8
82China0.6
83Dominican Republic0.5
83Pakistan0.5
83Peru0.5
86Ethiopia0.3
86Thailand0.3
88Papua New Guinea0.1
88Venezuala0.1

Source: The International Diabetes Federation